# Solutions

Solutions are just one of the various types of mixtures. Mixtures are all around you. From the pepperoni pizza you eat to the gold jewelry you wear. In fact, your body is a mixture of various substances. In this module, your challenge is to mix together various substances and find out which ones form solutions. Are you ready to find all of the problem’s...answers? Now that’s funny because you thought I was going to say solutions. Anyway, let’s get started.

### What is a mixture?

A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. The ingredients of a mixture retain their chemical properties and can be physically separated from each other. An example of a mixture is salt dissolved in water. Both the water and the salt retain their chemical properties, and the salt can be removed from the water by boiling the water. Mixtures can be divided into two groups: homogeneous and heterogeneous. Homogeneous mixtures consist of the same amount of each substance throughout the mixture. The saltwater that is produced when salt is dissolved in water has the same proportions of salt and water at every point in the mixture. A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the proportions of the substances are not constant throughout the mixture; that is, there are different amounts of each substance at different points in the mixture. An example of a heterogeneous mixture is clam chowder. At the surface of the chowder there is more broth and less clams, but at the bottom there are more clams and less broth.

### What is the difference between a solution, colloid, and suspension?

A solution is simply a homogeneous mixture. A solution consists of the substance that is referred to as the solute being mixed into another substance, called the solvent. When salt is mixed with water, the salt is the solute and the water is the solvent. The components of solutions are either atoms, molecules, or ions. A colloid is similar to a solution, but is made up of particles that are bigger than the atoms, molecules, or ions that make up a solution. Like a solution, a colloid is homogeneous. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture where the substances that make up the mixture can be distributed throughout the substance evenly if it is shaken, but will eventually settle and separate into the different substances. The components of suspensions are particles that are bigger than the components of solutions or colloids.

### How are saturated and unsaturated solutions different?

An unsaturated solution is a solution that can dissolve more solute if more is added. A saturated solution is a solution that has dissolved as much solute as possible, and if more solute is added, it will not dissolve.

### What is an ion?

An ion is an atom or molecule in which the number of protons and the number of electrons are not equal. If there are more protons than electrons, then the atom or molecule has an overall positive charge. If there are more electrons than protons, the atom or molecule has an overall negative charge.

### What is the process of disassociation?

Disassociation is the process of an ionic compound breaking down into simpler parts.

### What is the difference between miscible and immiscible substances?

If two substances are miscible, it means that the will mix evenly with each other and form a homogeneous mixture. If two substances are immiscible, they will form a heterogeneous mixture. Alcohol and water are miscible because they form a homogeneous mixture when mixed. Oil and water are an example of immiscible substances because they form a heterogeneous solution when mixed, as the oil will eventually settle above the water.

### What is the rule for whether substances will or will not form a solution?

Some molecules are arranged in such a way that one end of the molecule has a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge. These molecules are referred to as polar molecules. Molecules that are not arranged like this are called non-polar molecules. Generally, polar solutes will only dissolve in polar solvents, and non-polar solutes will only dissolve in non-polar solvents.